Artist

Otto Dix

Die Schwangere, 1931
Oil on panel
32 5/8 x 24 3/8 in. (83 x 62 cm)
Monogrammed and dated upper right

Chronology

1891

Born December 2 in Untermhaus near Gera, Thuringia, Germany.

 

1898-06

While attending elementary school he receives his first artistic encouragement from his drawing teacher.

 

1906-10

Apprentices with Carl Senff in decorative painting.

 

1909

Begins teaching himself easel painting, concentrating on portraits and landscapes.

 

1910-14

Attends Royal Dresden School of Arts and Crafts.

 

1914-18

Serves in German army, producing a number of sketches of war scenes in a variety of styles and mediums.

 

1919-20

Develops a style called Verism which uses exaggerated realism as a form of social criticism.

 

1920

Exhibits at the Internationalen Dada-Messe in Berlin.

 

1920s

Joins the Junge Rheinland and the Rote Gruppe, which leads to a politicized reception of his work.

 

1922

Studies at the State Academy of Art with Max Feldbauer and Otto Grussman. Dix is accused of pornography for exhibiting Girl Before Mirror. After losing his studio at the Dresden Akademie he moves to Düsseldorf where he marries Martha Koch. He increasingly turns away from overt political criticism and begins working extensively as a portraitist.

 

1923

His first solo exhibition is held at the Galerie I. B. Neumann in Berlin.

 

1924

Berlin art dealer, Karl Niedenderf, begins acting as his representative. A successful solo exhibition is held in the Berlin Kronprinzenpalais.

 

1925

Moves to Berlin.

 

1926

Appointed to a professorship at the Dresden Akademie.

1927-8

Begins painting his first triptych, Metropolis, which is among his most ambitious works.

 

1930s

Dix’s work becomes increasingly pessimistic and allegorical as Germany moves towards war.

 

1931

Named a member of Preussische Akademie der Kunste.

 

1933

Following the Nazi election victories, Dix is relieved of all honors and appointments. He is also forbidden to exhibit.

 

1934

Moves to Randegg Castle near Singen.

 

1936

Moves to Hemmenhofen on Lake Constance.

 

1937

His work is shown in the infamous exhibition of degenerate art in Munich.

 

1938

Following an assassination attempt on Hitler, Dix is imprisoned by the Gestapo for 14 days.

 

1945

He is drafted into the German territorial army, captured by the French and allowed to return home.

 

1955

Participates in the Documenta I in Kassel.

 

1957

A comprehensive retrospective of his work is held at the Academy of Arts in Berlin.

 

1960

Fritz Loeffler’s monograph on Dix is published.

 

1969

On July 25th, he dies of a stroke in Singen, Hohentriel.